<em id="jlrua"><acronym id="jlrua"><u id="jlrua"></u></acronym></em>
      <em id="jlrua"><acronym id="jlrua"></acronym></em>
    1. <progress id="jlrua"></progress>
      <rp id="jlrua"></rp>
      <tbody id="jlrua"><track id="jlrua"></track></tbody>

      <th id="jlrua"></th>



      Section A (The method for making beer has changed over time.)

      26. relatively
      27. surprising
      28. suggest
      29. direct
      30. test
      31. remains
      32. including
      33. staple
      34. arrived
      35. raw


      Beer recipes change over time. Hops, for example—which give many a modern brewskis its bitter, citrusy flavor—are a relatively recent addition to the beverage, first mentioned in reference to brewing in the ninth century. Now, researchers have found a surprising ingredient in residue from 5000-year-old beer brewing equipment. While excavating two pits at a site in the central plains of China, scientists discovered pottery fragments from pots, funnels, amphorae, and stoves (stove fragment pictured). The different shapes of the containers suggest they were used to brew, filter, and store beer—they may be ancient “beer-making toolkits,” and the earliest direct evidence of beer brewing in China, the researchers report online today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. To test that hypothesis, the team examined the yellowish, dried dregs inside the vessels. About a third of the starch grains they found were pitted, swollen, folded, or distorted—types of mangling that can occur during the malting and mashing needed to make beer. The majority of the grains—about 80%—were from cereal crops like millet and barley, and about 10% were bits of tubers, including yam and lily, which would have sweetened the brew, the scientists say. Barley was an unexpected find: The crop was domesticated in western Eurasia and didn’t become a staple food in central China until about 2000 years ago, according to the researchers. Based on that timing, they suggest barley may have arrived in the region not as food, but as fodder for brewing beer.

      日期:2016-06-03 期刊:Science

      翻譯:啤酒配方隨著時間而改變。例如給許多現代啤酒帶來苦味和柑橘味的啤酒花,是相對較晚被添加到啤酒中的成分,在九世紀與釀酒相關的史料中首次被提及。現在,研究人員在5000年前的釀酒制品殘留物中發現了驚人的成分。在中國中原地區兩個考古坑進行挖掘的期間,科學家們發現了來自 陶罐、漏斗、雙耳陶罐和火爐的陶制碎片(火爐碎片如圖)。研究人員今天在《國家科學院院刊》網絡版中報告稱,容器的不同形狀表示它們曾被用來釀造、過濾和儲存啤酒,它們可能是古代的“啤酒制作工具包”,也是最早的有關中國啤酒釀造的直接證據。為了檢驗這一假設,研究小組檢測了容器內暗黃干燥的殘留物。其中發現的淀粉顆粒中約有三分之一或凹或脹,或折疊或扭曲,這些變形會在釀造啤酒所需的麥芽處理和麥芽漿制作的過程中發生。科學家們表示,這些谷粒中的大多數,約80%,來自小米和大麥這樣的谷類作物,同時10%左右來自塊莖植物,包括山藥和百合,它們給這些啤酒增添了甜味。研究人員表示,大麥是一個意外的發現:這種農作物在歐亞大陸西部種植,直到大約2000年前才成為中國中部地區的主食。根據這一時間點,研究人員表示大麥當時可能是作為釀造啤酒的原料,而不是一種食物被引入中國中原地區的。

      Text 1

      46. A) Britons have cut their spending on it.
      47. B) It will remain gloomy.
      48. C) Luxurious features add much to the price.
      49. A) They are particular about the quality of toilet paper.
      50. D) Environmental protection is not much of a concern when Britons buy toilet paper.

      版權所有:英語四級考試網 www.www.f5815.com,轉載請注明來源。