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      大學修煉十大技能敲定第一份工作

      The number of jobs available for graduates is predicted to rise by 10.2%, according to a survey by the Association of Graduate Recruiters. Good news for students – but when you come to apply for your first job after university, are you sure you'll have the relevant skills for the post?
      據“畢業生招聘協會”的調研預測,今年英國畢業生的職位會增加10.2%。這是眾多畢業生的福音——可是,當你申請大學畢業后的第一份工作時,你確定自己擁有招聘廣告上列出來的所有相關技能么?

      Leaving it until you're sitting in front of a blank computer screen trying to write your CV for a graduate job may well be too late to assess the qualities you've got to offer.
      如果拖到坐在電腦前開始為申請工作整理簡歷時候,再去考慮技能問題,就太晚啦。

      "From day one students should see the start of university as the start of their working life," says Dan Hawes, co-founder of the Graduate Recruitment Bureau. "Think of the skills you need to have when you finish university in three or four years time and then work backwards, so you're hoarding skills each year."
      “從第一天開始,學生就該把大學的開始看做職業生涯的開始,”畢業生招聘局的聯合創辦人丹·霍斯講道。“想想自己未來三四年中大學畢業時需要的技能,然后倒推回來,這樣每年就都在貯藏技能。”

      Gemma Pirnie, founder of Your New Crew, says: "When I left university I was completely unprepared for what the grad market would throw at me. I thought having a 2:1 from a good university and having a bit of (irrelevant) work experience would see me land a job no problem – not the case."
      “為您招聘”公司的創始人杰瑪·皮爾納講道:“當年我離開大學的時候,對于接下來要面對的畢業生市場,沒有任何概念。我以為能以過半的成績從一個好大學畢業,有些(不相關的)工作經驗,就能毫無懸念地找到工作——其實不然。”

      Obviously the skills you need will depend on the job you apply for, but there are some things that graduate recruiters are looking for that you can start thinking about now.

      顯然,你會用到的技能由所申請的工作決定,但是,招聘人員想要應聘者擁有的有些技能,你現在就可以開始考慮了。

      Business sense
      商業理念

      "Candidates who start their own societies, organise their university ball or start their own T-shirt-making business while at uni tend to have a good grasp of how a business makes money," says Cary Curtis, managing director of Give-a-grad-a-go.“
      應聘者中,凡是大學期間自己開過社團,組織過舞會或者做過T恤衫生意的,都會對如何做生意賺錢有更多了解,”“創意畢業生招聘”的管理主任卡里·柯蒂斯講道。

      An understanding of business is one of the main skills that students underestimate, according to a 2013 Guardian survey. Less than 10% of students thought it was a vital skill, compared to nearly 50% of employers.
      據2013年《衛報》調研報道,商業理念是常被學生低估的技能之一。不到10%的學生認為這是項重要的技能,而招聘者中認為如此的有50%。

      "You don't need to be the next Mark Zuckerberg," says Curtis, "but having a good idea of how a business runs and the challenges involved are really useful skills to take into a company."
      “你不必成為下一個馬克·扎克伯格,” 柯蒂斯講道,“但是知道怎樣經營一個生意,了解其中的挑戰,對公司而言是非常有用的。”

      Get global
      全球化理念

      "More and more employers are wanting graduates to have a 'global mindset', which means understanding different cultures and how industries work across borders," says Stephen Isherwood, chief executive of the Association of Graduate Recruiters.
      “越來越多的雇主希望畢業生有‘全球化的理念’——了解不同的文化,以及工業產業如何跨國運作,” “畢業生招聘協會”的首席執行官斯蒂芬·伊舍伍德講道。

      Isherwood recommends that students make the most of time at uni to meet people from around the world, consider study abroad schemes like Erasmus, and says that speaking another language shows that a grad has a "better cultural understanding".
      伊舍伍德建議學生們多花時間和來自世界各地的人交流,考慮伊拉斯莫國外交流學習項目,會從中受益很多。伊舍伍德也講道,會講一門外語也體現出畢業生有“更好的文化理解能力”。(小編注:“Erasmus Mundus” 項目是歐洲在高等教育領域的一個合作性學生交流項目。)

      A language
      會講一門外語

      "If you speak another language then make sure it's clearly displayed on your CV," says Curtis. "We really like bilingual candidates as they usually interview really well. But quite often their CV doesn't do them justice. 'Business fluent French' looks much better than just 'French A-level at grade A' as it offers a company more."
      “如果你會講外語,記得在簡歷上清楚地標明,” 柯蒂斯講道,“我們真的很喜歡會雙語的應聘者,因為他們通常面試表現都很棒。但是很多時候他們的簡歷都沒有為他們爭取到機會。‘流利的商務法語’看起來比只是‘法語初級考試A等’更有吸引力,因為這能給公司帶來更多。”

      Be careful though. "If you haven't had much practice with your languages make sure you scrub up before sending out a CV that implies you can hold your own.
      "但是要特別注意。“如果你沒有怎樣練習過這門語言,確保在你發出簡歷之前把這項你還需加強的語言技能去掉。”

      A squeaky clean digital footprint
      完美的個人網絡檔案

      "Start building a digital footprint of relevance to what you want to do," says Smith. "Employers, just like everyone else, will look on the internet as a first port of call."
      “把你計劃做的事情在網上記錄下來,”史密斯講道。“雇主和其他人一樣,考核你的時候會先去網站上搜集信息。”

      That might mean setting up a LinkedIn profile, starting your own blog or website, joining Twitter, and generally making sure you're careful about what goes online connected to you.
      你可以在“領英”網站建立自己的檔案,開通個人博客或網站,加入推特,同時要大致注意網上可查的和你相關的信息。

      Chris Smith, chief executive of Opinio Group recruiters, says: "If the only thing employers can find is you with traffic cones on your head on Facebook then you're in trouble."
      “觀點群體”招聘方的首席執行官克里斯·史密斯講道:“如果雇主在網上能找到的唯一關于你的信息,是你臉譜網上頭戴交通錐標的搞怪照片,那么你完了。”

      Office etiquette
      辦公室禮儀

      Knowing how to fit into an office will come in handy for many graduate jobs, so it's a good idea to look for opportunities to spend time in one while you're still a student.
      知道怎樣融入辦公室環境對畢業生找工作很有用。所以當學生的時候,找機會去辦公室體驗下,是個不錯的主意。

      Hawes says: "What some graduates might not have is the office know-how, maybe they've never worked in an office before so everything's new, whether it's answering the phone or the way you dress or address people, the things like that – office etiquette."
      霍斯說道:“很多畢業生可能不知道在辦公室應該怎樣做事,也許他們從沒在這樣的環境工作過,所以一切都是陌生的,無論是接電話、穿著還是稱呼別人都屬于辦公室禮儀。

      How to make a good cuppa
      怎樣泡杯好茶

      Sam Espensen, managing director of Conversation Creation, says: "One of the skills that has stood me in great stead is making great tea and coffee. I once had a grad refuse to make my team drinks because it 'suggested he was below the rest of us' – needless to say he didn't last long.
      “創造對話”的管理主任山姆 ·埃斯佩森講道:“我在辦公室站穩腳跟的技能之一就是會準備很棒的茶和咖啡。曾經有畢業生拒絕給我的團隊準備飲品,因為他自己認為這樣顯得低人一等——毫無疑問,他當然沒能在辦公室呆太久。”

      "We all make tea in my team and the person who brings me a cup of tea unprompted is likely to be my hero for the day."
      “我們團隊的成員都會泡茶,而那個自發幫我端上一杯茶的人,就是我那天的福星。”

      Sussing out the culture of a workplace (whether they all make tea for each other, for example) is really important when you come to look for work.
      當你準備參加工作時,留心辦公室的文化(比如他們是否會幫別人泡茶)是非常重要的。

      Good with computers
      擅長電腦

      "Hard skills in programming and software development for us are really valuable," says Hawes. Curtis adds that being highly numerate and having good analytical skills is increasingly important.
      “編程和軟件開發的硬性技能是我們很看重的,” 霍斯講道。柯蒂斯補充講道,優秀的計算和分析能力正日益變得重要起來。

      But even if you're not applying for a job in a tech company, being digitally savvy is still really important.
      即使你不是申請科技公司的職位,精通數碼產品仍是非常重要的。

      "All employers expect graduates to be computer literate," says Isherwood. "Generally just being aware of the digital age is important. That doesn't mean having programming skills, but understanding that instant messaging and conference calls are common in the business world and having basic IT skills like working with spreadsheets and documents."
      “所有的雇主都期望畢業生精通電腦,” 伊舍伍德講道。“總的來講,重要的是認識到現在是數碼時代。這并不意味著要會編程,但是知道即時通訊和電話會議是商業中很常見的,要會使用諸如電子表格和文檔等基本的電腦操作技能 。

      Teamwork
      團隊合作

      If you've been thinking of joining a uni sports team but haven't quite found the motivation, here's another reason to join: it could help you get a job. Smith says: "What shows better that someone can be part of a team than the fact they've spent the past two years playing for a team.
      "如果你在考慮加入學校運動隊卻還沒找到動力,這就是個理由:它可以幫你找到工作。史密斯講道:“至于證實個人的團隊精神,還有什么比過去兩年在團隊里打比賽這一事實更有說服力呢。”

      Being able to work with other people is a key skill employers are looking for and you'll need to prove it's something you have had experience of beyond your course.
      能和他人很好地合作是雇主們尋找的重要技能之一,你要能證明自己課外有過這方面的經歷。

      "When talking about teamwork don't use university examples," says Isherwood. "At uni the teams are chosen for you, so it's much more impressive to speak about sport or involvement with a society."
      “講道團隊合作的時候,不要用學校里的例子,” 伊舍伍德講道。“在學校,團隊是為你選好的,所以講講在運動隊或者社會活動中的例子,會給人留下更深的印象。”

      Talking to people
      與人交流

      Getting confident talking to people is useful for building up your contacts. Pirnie says: "Attend industry meet ups. This will help you both with articulating your interests and with interview techniques as you'll quickly become comfortable talking to new people.
      "能夠自信地和別人交流對于建立關系網是很有用的。皮爾尼講道:“參加工業界的聚會。這會幫你更清晰地表達自己的興趣,與此同時能夠自在地和陌生人交談也是很有用的面試技能。

      Smith recommends going to exhibitions and conventions in your chosen field. He says: "There are small business conventions going on all over the country. Go to them, meet people, ask some questions. And if you're not sure yet quite what you want to do, all the more reason to get out there and investigate."
      史密斯推薦大家去參加自己所在領域的展覽和會議。他講道:“全國各地都有小型的商業會議。去參加這類會議,結識陌生人,問些問題。如果你還不太確定自己想做什么,就更有理由參與其中去發現啦。”

      Positive attitude
      積極的態度

      If you're still at uni, it's worth thinking about how you can build up all these skills. But if you're in your final year and haven't ticked them all, don't worry. "Employers often say that they hire for attitude and train for skill," says Hawes. So whatever experience you've got to your name, a positive attitude is still the most important thing you can bring to your first job.
      如果你還在大學,很值得好好考慮下自己可以怎樣培養這些技能。但如果你已經是大四最后一年卻還沒掌握全部技能, 也不要擔心。“雇主們總會講他們會選擇態度,然后培養技能,” 霍斯講道。所以,無論你有什么技能,積極的態度仍是決定你第一份工作的最重要因素。

      A few more things to consider
      你還可以考慮這些

      • A driving licence:
      • 駕照:

      "A driving licence certainly isn't the prerequisite that it used to be," says Curtis, but if you haven't yet learnt to drive it's still worth trying before you leave uni. Smith says: "It can be important. Also, it speaks volumes if you can't drive. The first thing I think is – why not? It hints at laziness."
      “駕照當然不會是雇傭新人的前提了,” 柯蒂斯講道,但是如果你還沒學過開車,有必要在離開大學之前開始這一計劃了。史密斯講道:“這點也可以變得重要。而且,如果你不會開車,其實可以體現一點。首先我想到的是——為什么不會呢?這暗示你很懶呢。”

      • You can pick up skills in unlikely places:
      • 你會在自己想都想不到的地方學到技能:

      Espensen's father ran a cottage industry making model planes, and when she was a student she "reluctantly" helped out, packing the kits and posting them out. At the time she had no idea that the knowledge she built up would come in handy – but she ended up working doing the PR for the Bomber Command Memorial and realised how useful it was.
      埃斯佩森的爸爸管理著制作飛機模型的家庭手工業。當她還是學生的時候,她很“勉強地”幫忙,打包裝備,再郵寄出去。當時,她完全不知道自己無覺中學到的東西有天會如此有用——但她最終在轟炸機司令部紀念館做公關工作,之后開始意識到自己當初學到的東西多么有用。

      Things you get involved with at university and in your own time might not seem directly linked to what you want to do in the future, but you never know when those skills might come in handy.
      大學期間,你在課余時間做的一些事情,也許看似并不和未來的目標直接相關,但你永遠不會知道這些技能將帶給你什么。

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